International Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation, 2021, 11, 3, 327-332.
Published: October 2021
Type: Original Article
Pharmaceutical Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, INDIA.
Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, HAH Centenary Hospital, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, INDIA.
Nidhi Bharal Agarwal
Centre for Translational and Clinical Research, School of Chemical and Life Sciences, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, INDIA.
Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is linked to a significant rate of depression and cognitive impairment, according to previous studies. However, limited research has been done on the effects of diabetes treatment on depression, cognitive function, or overall quality of life (QoL). This planned study investigated into depression, cognitive function, and quality of life in T2DM patients, as well as its relationship to treatment received. To study the association of insulin therapy with depression, cognition and quality of life in T2DM patients. Methods: This was a crosssectional study that included 300 participants, comprising of 150 T2DM patients and 150 healthy individuals. The Patient health questionnaire and the Mini-mental state examination were used to measure depression and cognitive function, respectively. QoL was assessed using the Short-Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire. Based on the type of treatment, all of the patients were divided into two subgroups: oral hypoglycemic medications (OHAs) and insulin. Results: The study included 300 participants, including T2DM patients (n=150) and healthy controls (n=150). In individuals with T2DM, the chances of mild (aOR 2.21, 95 % Ci 1.16-4.20; p=0.016) and severe (aOR 4.32, 95 % Ci 1.27-14.67; p=0.019) depression was higher. T2DM patients were also more likely to have cognitive impairment (aOR 2.86, 95 % Ci 1.16-6.99; p=0.021). Patients taking insulin had a substantially increased risk of depression (OR 2.127, 95 % Ci 1.070-4.228, p=0.036). Insulin-treated patients exhibited considerably poorer QoL ratings. Conclusion: The research illustrates that insulin therapy has a negative impact on depression and QoL in T2DM patients. As a result, it is recommended that insulin-treated T2DM patients require psychological assistance. In such cases, it is advised that measures to enhance QoL be implemented.
Keywords: Depression, Cognitive impairment, Quality of life, Hypoglycemic, Insulin, Type 2 diabetes .