Pharmacognostic Evaluation of Fruits and Leaves of Annona muricata L
Pharmacognostic evaluation of Annona muricata
Objectives: Adulteration in marketed samples has been considered as huge draw-back in fortifying quality herbal products. The study was to investigate and establish leaves, fresh fruit and dry powdered material of pulp, for pharmacognostic standardization parameters as per WHO guideline. Methods: Extracts of Annona muricata (hydroalcoholic and ethyl acetate) were prepared and subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. Further, the extracts were used to analyse total phenol and flavonoid contents and also estimated antioxidant activities using DPPH and nitric oxide assay. Results: Shape size, color, odour and surface characteristics were noted for fresh fruit. Microscopic images of leaf and powdered fruit exhibited useful diagnostic features. The stomata identified were anamocytic. Vein-islet and vein termination number of leaves of Annona muricata were estimated and reported. Total ash, water soluble and acid insoluble ash was found to be 22.516±1.854%, 7.671±0.730% and 11.233±1.742% respectively. Loss on drying of dry and fresh fruit was found to be 20.16% and 78.95%. The water and alcoholic extractive values were 34.4% and 18.6%. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phenols and flavonoids and total flavonoid and phenol content in hydroalcoholic and ethyl acetate extracts of AM and were found to be 240 mg rut/g, 102.0 mg rut/g 12.0408 mg GAE/g and, 113.74 mg GAE/g respectively. IC50 values of DPPH and nitric oxide assay of hydroalcoholic extracts and ethyl acetate were estimated as 24.557 μg/ml, 16.847 μg/ml, 25.883 μg/ml and 23.411 μg/ml respectively. Conclusion: The findings obtained from the present study helps to authenticate and establish the pharmacopeia standards for AM plant and demonstrated the antioxidant activity of fruit.