International Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation <blockquote>International Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation is an official publication of Phcog.Net, publishing peer-reviewed scholarly reviews, themed issues and research articles within the entire scope of the pharmaceutics. The journal particularly aims to foster the dissemination of scientific information by publishing manuscripts related to current pharmaceutical drug delivery and related fields and submission of uninvited expert reviews and research articles in all areas of pharmaceutical drug delivery are welcomed. The journal publishes the following categories of manuscripts: research papers presenting original research, reviews, short communications, letter to the editor, commentaries, etc. including critical review articles providing comprehensive analysis of research development within a defined area and editorial commentaries on key topical issues in pharmaceutical drug delivery. <br><br></blockquote> <p><strong>Subjects covered in the journal</strong></p> <p>The journal aims to cater the latest outstanding developments in the field of Pharmaceutical sciences and Technology covering the following topics (non-limiting):</p> <blockquote>· Pharmaceutics<br> · Nanotechnology<br> · Current Novel Drug Delivery Systems<br> · Quality control of Pharmaceuticals<br> · Quality Assurance<br> · National and International Regulatory Affairs<br> · Validation Techniques<br> · Industrial Pharmacy<br> · Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition<br> · Pharmacokinetics<br> · Drug Development<br> · Pharmaceutical Intellectual Property Rights.</blockquote> EManuscript en-US International Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation 2230-973X A Review of the Seeds Comprising Panch phoron, a Spice used in Indian Cuisine <p style="text-align: justify;">India houses a wide variety of plants with medicinal properties on account of being a megadiversity country. Spices, comprising different parts of a plant (seeds, bark, etc.), are substances used for adding flavor to and preserving food items. They possess a myriad of health benefits, uses of which are documented in ancient literature. <em>Panch phoron</em> is a mixture of five spices, comprising whole seeds of cumin, fennel, fenugreek, mustard and black cumin. It is widely used in India, especially Eastern India, for adding flavor to food in daily cooking. The present study delves into various pharmacological properties of each of the five seeds comprising <em>Panch phoron</em> and is necessitated by the current interest in plant products as a cheaper and far better alternative than the synthetic drugs available but associated with side effects. It was seen that the seeds have myriad properties such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumorigenic, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, gastroprotective and cardioprotective and may be used for the treatment of diabetes, cancer, inflammation, kidney problems, liver problems, etc., following proper scientific validation and long-term trials. The review aspires to scientifically validate the vast traditional use of this spice in the Eastern Indian cuisine and its immense scope in herbal therapeutics in the future.</p> Debjani Sarkar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-13 2019-08-13 9 2 25 35 10.5530/ijpi.2019.2.7 Production and Applications of Radiopharmaceuticals: A Review <p>Radiopharmaceuticals are exclusive medicinal formulations including radioisotopes which are utilized in foremost clinical areas for study, diagnosis and/or therapy. They are radioactive agents employed in nuclear medical field to demonstrate high and exact localization radioactivity into target tissue. Recently, however, there has been a considerable development of this division of nuclear medicine with the preamble of a quantity of new radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of cancer, neuroendocrine disorder and other diseases. The application of definite radiotracers called radiopharmaceuticals for imaging organ function and disease states is an exceptional potential of nuclear medicine. Distinct other imaging modalities, for example- Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Ultrasonography (US), nuclear medicine procedures are competent of drawing physiological function and metabolic activity and thus giving more precise information about the organ function and dysfunction. This review focuses the production and therapeutic applications of radiopharmaceuticals which hold functional radio atoms.</p> Nihar Ranjan Kar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-16 2019-09-16 9 2 36 42 10.5530/ijpi.2019.2.8 Self-medication Practice among Health Sciences Undergraduate Students in Sana’a City-Yemen <p><strong>Background:</strong> The self-medication practice (SM) has increased worldwide for treating mild ailments without medical consultation and drug prescription. Health information background and proper SM may have positive outcomes. This study is focused on the SM practice among the undergraduate health science students either medicine or paramedical students in different education levels in Sana’a City.<strong> Methods:</strong> A prospective crosssectional questionnaire was structured and validated to conduct randomly a sample of health science undergraduate students from January to April 2019 in Sana’a City-Yemen. Chi-square test and logistic regressions were the analytical methods used in this study. A 468-health science students involved in this study for 4 months form from January 2019 to April 2019. <strong>Results:</strong> The prevalence of SM practice was 90% compared with non-selfmedicating respondents (10%) as outcomes of this work. Females (93%) showed significantly higher SM practice than males (87%). The mildness of the illness (90%) and prior experience (82%) were the two most frequently reported source of drug information for self-medication in this study. Cough, common cold (88%) and headache (88%) were the most likely symptoms reported as self-medicated illnesses in the present study. The most frequently consumed medications have been analgesics (87%), common cold preparations (82%) and antipyretics (78%). Self-medication practice was noticeable among health sciences undergraduate students in Sana’a city and this referred to the mildness of the illness and previous experience. There were statistically significant differences between respondents based on gender in the present study, but there were differences, neither according to specific fields nor to educational level.</p> Doa’a Anwar Ibrahim Abdulsalam Halboup ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-16 2019-09-16 9 2 80 84 10.5530/ijpi.2019.2.16 Effect of Amlodipine and Captopril on Reproductive Capabilities of Male Laboratory Mice <p><strong>Background:</strong> Hypertension is well confirmed as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Researches in the treatment of hypertension has produced a multitude of drug classes with different efficacy profiles, which including β-blockers, diuretics, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers and calcium channel blockers. This study aimed to investigate the effects of captopril and amlodipine on some of reproductive abilities. <strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The laboratory mice were 10-12 weeks and 23-25 g divided into three groups, six mice of each one. Group A served as control group; injected with 0.1 ml of normal saline, group B; injected with 0.1 ml of Captopril with 0.2 mg / kg, group C injected with 0.1 ml of amlodipine 0.08 mg / kg. <strong>Results:</strong> Decrease in sperm count and testis weights and testosterone hormone of Amlodipine treated mice. While the numbers of sperms and testis weight of captopril treated mice were comparable to that of control groups. But decrease normal sperms of captopril and Amlodipine treated mice comparable to that of control group. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> These results suggest that the treatment with amlodipine causes a significant testicular weight regression and reduction in sperm count.</p> Salma Saeed Abbas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-16 2019-09-16 9 2 76 79 10.5530/ijpi.2019.2.15 Acute Toxicity Study of Annona reticulata Leaves Extract in Swiss Albino Mice <p><strong>Background:</strong> <em>Annona reticulata</em> (AR) or custard apple belongs to family Annonaceae. The plant is traditionally used to treat various ailments and is also known for its medicinal properties. <strong>Objectives:</strong> The aim of this research work was to evaluate the safety of usage of AR leaf extract in nutraceutical formulations through acute toxicity study. <strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The leaves of AR were cleaned, dried and powdered; and aqueous extract (ARAQ) was prepared. The acute toxicity test was conducted using female swiss albino mice. As per Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 423 guideline, a single dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight of ARAQ was administered via oral gavage for 14 days. Mortality, signs of toxicity, body weight and behavioral changes were observed during the study period. Following the 14-day treatment, the mice were sacrificed for hematological, biochemical and histopathology studies. <strong>Results:</strong> No mortality, signs of toxicity and changes in behavior were observed at 2000 mg/kg body weight. In addition, no significant differences (p&gt;0.05) were noticed in body and organ weight between the control and ARAQ treated groups. Also, there were no significant elevations observed in hematological and biochemical blood parameters. Further, histopathological examination revealed normal architecture of liver, kidney and pancreas. No significant adverse effects were observed in these organs. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Overall, ARAQ did not produce any significant toxic effect in mice and the results also indicate the safety of the oral administration of ARAQ at 2000 mg/kg body weight. Hence, ARAQ can be utilized in nutraceutical formulations.</p> Lohith Mysuru Shivanna Halugudde Nagaraja Sarjan Asna Urooj ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-16 2019-09-16 9 2 71 75 10.5530/ijpi.2019.2.14 Research on Withania somnifera (Ashwaganda): A Scientometric Assessment of Global Publications Output during 1995-2018 <p>The present study examined 2008 global publications on <em>Withania somnifera</em>, as indexed and covered in international Scopus database during 1995-18, with a view to understand their publications growth rate, global publication share, citation impact, share of their international collaborative publications, distribution of publications by broad subjects, productivity and citation profile of top organizations and authors, preferred media of communication and bibliographic characteristics of high cited publications. The global publications registered 18.31% annual average growth rate and its citation impact averaged to 18.55 citations per publication. The global share of top 10 countries ranged from 1.34% to 70.42%, with the largest share (70.42%) from India, followed by USA (11.35%) and other 8 countries from 1.34% to 4.03%. More than 100% of the cumulative global publication and citation share comes from top 10 countries during 1995-18. Only four countries among top 10 registered relative citation index above the world average of 1.0: U.K. (2.48), USA (1.80), Germany (1.69) and South Korea (1.08) during 1995-18. Pharmacology, toxicology and pharmaceutics contributed the largest global publications share of 42.33%, followed biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology (32.42%), medicine (30.73%), agricultural &amp; biological sciences (25.45%), etc. during 1995-18. 377 global organizations and 422 global authors participated in global <em>Withania somnifera</em> research, of which the 15 most productive global organizations and authors together contributed 25.65% and 14.59% global publication share and 32.31% and 23.82% global citation share respectively during 1995-18. Amongst 1964 journal publications (in 313 journals) in global <em>Withania somnifera</em> research, the top 15 most productive journals together contributed 21.49% global share of total journal publication output during 1995-18. Sixty Eight (68) publications were found to be high cited, as they registered citations from 100 to 601 during 1995-18 and they together received 11582 citations, averaging to 170.32 citations per publication.</p> B. M. Gupta K K Mueen Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-16 2019-09-16 9 2 59 66 10.5530/ijpi.2019.2.12 UV Spectrophotometric and Stability Indicating RP-HPLC Assay Methods for the Estimation of Etodolac in Bulk and Tablet Dosage Form <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The present article involved the development of sensitive and validated reverse phase liquid chromatographic and UV-spectrophotometric method for the determination of etodolac in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. <strong>Methods:</strong> The presents UV method is based on measurement of absorption at maximum at 226 nm using methanol and water (70:30) as a solvent. The stock solution of etodolac was prepared and subsequent suitable dilution was prepared in distilled water to obtained standard curve. The standard solution of Etodolac shows absorption maxima at 226 nm. <strong>Results:</strong> The drug obeyed beer lambert’s law in the concentration range of 2-20 μg/ml with regression coefficient 0.9998 at 226 nm. The chromatographic method was optimised using Phenomenex Luna C<sub>18</sub>, 100A, 5mm, 250mm x 4.6mm i.d. column with UV detection at 226 nm and Acetonitrile: Methanol in 65:35 ratio at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/ min. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Etodolac in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. The method was found linear over the range of 0 – 48 μg/ml. The recovery was observed in the range of 98% to 102% and limit of detection and limit of quantification were found to be 0.08 μg/ml and 0.26 μg/ml. Different analytical performance parameters such as precision, accuracy, limit of detection, limit of quantification and robustness were determined and found satisfactory according to International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The developed methods were found reliable, easy and validated for the estimation of etodolac in bulk and tablet dosage form.</p> Sabyasachi Biswal Sumanta Mondal Prasenjit Mondal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-16 2019-09-16 9 2 53 58 10.5530/ijpi.2019.2.11 Investigative Study on Impact of Solid: Liquid Lipid Ratio and Stabilizer Amount on Some Characteristics of Nanostructure Lipid Carriers of Quetiapine Fumarate <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Nanostrucured Lipid Carriers (NLCs) are the 2nd generation of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs) designed to overcome limitations of SLNs. Their characteristics can be modulated by variations in formulation and process variables. The present study was aimed at investigating the influence of formulation variables, solid: liquid lipid ratio and stabilizer amount on some important characteristics of Quetiapine Fumarate Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (QF-NLC) like percent Entrapment Efficiency (%EE), Particle Size (PS), Polydispersity Index (PDI) and Zeta Potential (ZP). <strong>Methods and Materials:</strong> The study was carried out by varying the ratio of solid:liquid lipid and stabilizer amount sequentially in two sets of experiments and studying their impact on the selected characteristics of QF-NLC. Hot emulsification followed by ultrasonication was the method of preparation. Precirol ATO5, oleic acid and Phospholipon 90G (P90G) were selected as the solid lipid, liquid lipid and stabilizer respectively. <strong>Results: </strong>On varying the solid: liquid lipid ratios in the first set of experiments, %EE, PS and ZP ranged from 65.05-75.52%, 281.5-150.4nm and -16.4- -21.4mV respectively showing that decrease in the ratio was related to %EE and ZP inversely and to PS and PDI directly. Increase in the amount of P90G in the second set of experiments showed %EE to be affected positively and PS and PDI negatively. ZP was less sensitive to changes in P90G.<strong> Conclusion:</strong> From the study it can be concluded that by varying the chosen formulation variables a QF-NLC formulation with desired characteristics can be formulated for the chosen objective.</p> Shweta Agarwal S.L. Hari Kumar Rajeev Garg ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-16 2019-09-16 9 2 47 52 10.5530/ijpi.2019.2.10 Comparative Modeling, Characterization and Energy Minimization Studies of Aquaporin 9: An Exclusive Target Protein for Rheumatoid Arthritis <p><strong>Background:</strong> In the absence of the experimentally determined structure, computer aided protein structure prediction, evaluation and their energetically stable structure identification is the only way out of the problem. The main objective of the study was to perform the structure prediction of Aquaporin 9 (APQ9) the most targeted protein for rheumatoid arthritis, using <em>in-silico</em> methodology and validate the generated models. <strong>Methods:</strong> Secondary structure prediction of AQP9 was performed using GOR4, SOPMA and CFSSP algorithm. This was followed by the three-dimensional structure identification from MODELLER, LOMETS and MUSTER server. Many models were built and the best amongst them was identified on the basis of their DOPE score. RAMPAGE was used to validate these models and finally the selected model was energetically stabilized. <strong>Results:</strong> Amongst the 4 predicted models, model predicted using MODELLER software with 1FX8 PDB template (MODELER MODEL 2) was selected as the best. This model showed the best results in Ramachandran plot validation. In the Ramachandran Plot, 223 residues (95.7%) were found to be in the favored region, 9 residues (3.9%) in the Allowed region and the rest 1 residue (0.4%) in the Outlier region. Energy minimization calculations were also done for the four models using SPBDV software and Modeler Model 2 model showed the least energy (E= 3484.038 KJ/mol).<strong> Conclusion:</strong> The accurate three-dimensional structure prediction of proteins is a grand challenge now. Massive amount of sequence and structural data is available now with low cost. The choice of one or other method depends solely on the type of protein sequence and the quality of the predicted structure. The accurate structure prediction, fold recognition, energy calculation, side chain modeling and target template identification are the crucial edges of the molecular modeling process which need to be scrutinized for the best predicted model.</p> Surojeet Das Parul Johri Ruchi Sharma Monika Kashyap Shivani Singh Sachidanand Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-16 2019-09-16 9 2 43 46 10.5530/ijpi.2019.2.9 GC-MS Analysis of Bio-active Compounds in Ethanolic Extract of Leaf and Stem of Asclepias curassavica L. <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background:</strong> The presence of phytochemical constitutes has been reported from species of the family Asclepiadaceae. No reports exist on the phytochemical components and biological activity of leaf and stem of <em>Asclepias curassavica</em> L. <strong>Objective:</strong> The present study was designed to determine the bioactive compounds in the leaf and stem ethanolic extract of <em>Asclepias curassavica</em> L. <strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Phytochemical screening of ethanolic extract of leaf and stem revealed the presence of some bio-active components. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the leaf and stem ethanolic extract of <em>Asclepias curassavica</em> L. was performed on a GC-MS equipment. <strong>Results:</strong> The phytochemical tests showed the presence of cardiac glycosides, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins, and protein/amino acids in ethanolic extract of Asclepias curassavica L.. The GC-MS analysis has shown the presence of different phytochemical compounds in the ethanolic extract of <em>Asclepias curassavica</em> L. A total of 18 and 7 compounds were identified in leaf and stem ethanolic extract composition. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> From the results, it is evident that <em>Asclepias curassavica</em> L. contains various phytocomponents and is recommended as a plant of phytopharmaceutical importance.</p> Varsha Shelke Meeta Bhot ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-13 2019-08-13 9 2 67 70 10.5530/ijpi.2019.2.13 Expression of MUC4 in Oral Dysplastic Epithelium <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background:</strong> Though various biological markers are available for improving the diagnostic accuracy early detection of disease progression remains a challenging task mainly due to lack of adequate early prognostic marker. Aim and Objectives: To evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of MUC4 in oral epithelial dysplasia and to compare the immuno histochemical expression of MUC4 in Oral Epithelia Dysplasia (OED) and its expression in the normal tissue specimens. <strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The present retrospective study was undertaken to compare and evaluate the expression of MUC4 in oral epithelial dysplasia and normal. The study comprised of 45 cases of oral epithelial dysplasia and 10 controls. Control specimens were obtained from healthy oral mucosa of individuals undergoing oral surgery for disimpaction of third molars and orthodontic extractions. Serial sections of 3-4 microns thickness were made from the tissue blocks and were stained using immunohistochemical marker MUC4, using an immunoperoxidase technique (ABC method). The semi quantitative analysis of the stained sections was done by light microscopy according to the Immunoreactive Score (IRS) by Remmele and Stegner which evaluated percentage of positive cells and the staining intensity. <strong>Results:</strong> Less than 10% of positive cells were seen in 9 cases of mild dysplasia out of 15 cases and 3 cases showed 10 to 50% of positive cells. Whereas less than 10% of positive cells were seen in 6 cases of moderate dysplasia out of 15 cases and other 9 cases showed 16% and 42% of positive cells respectively. However, in severe dysplasia positive cells percentage increased to 10 to 50% in 10 cases and other cases showed less than 10% respectively. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> In the OED group a gradual increase in the staining pattern was observed from mild to moderate to severe dysplasia. Severe dysplasia cases exhibited the staining of entire thickness of epithelium. Thus, it may be concluded that MUC4 plays a very important role and can be reckoned as a handy tool or marker for diagnosis of OED.</p> Mohammed Abidullah Prashant Nahar Syed Afroz Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-13 2019-08-13 9 2 85 88 10.5530/ijpi.2019.2.17