International Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation 2019-07-29T12:03:13+00:00 Dr. Javed Ali Open Journal Systems <blockquote>International Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation is an official publication of Phcog.Net, publishing peer-reviewed scholarly reviews, themed issues and research articles within the entire scope of the pharmaceutics. The journal particularly aims to foster the dissemination of scientific information by publishing manuscripts related to current pharmaceutical drug delivery and related fields and submission of uninvited expert reviews and research articles in all areas of pharmaceutical drug delivery are welcomed. The journal publishes the following categories of manuscripts: research papers presenting original research, reviews, short communications, letter to the editor, commentaries, etc. including critical review articles providing comprehensive analysis of research development within a defined area and editorial commentaries on key topical issues in pharmaceutical drug delivery. <br><br></blockquote> <p><strong>Subjects covered in the journal</strong></p> <p>The journal aims to cater the latest outstanding developments in the field of Pharmaceutical sciences and Technology covering the following topics (non-limiting):</p> <blockquote>· Pharmaceutics<br> · Nanotechnology<br> · Current Novel Drug Delivery Systems<br> · Quality control of Pharmaceuticals<br> · Quality Assurance<br> · National and International Regulatory Affairs<br> · Validation Techniques<br> · Industrial Pharmacy<br> · Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition<br> · Pharmacokinetics<br> · Drug Development<br> · Pharmaceutical Intellectual Property Rights.</blockquote> International Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation: Now Published with EManuscript 2019-07-29T11:26:57+00:00 Mohammed Yunus <p style="text-align: left;">The year 2019 is another milestone for International Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation (JPHI) as it is entering to 9th year. It is known as one of the peer-reviewed pharmaceutical journal and I am pleased to present you this issue being published by EManuscript, Bangalore, India. JPHI is publishing scholarly reviews and research articles in the field of pharmacy and bioallied Sciences. Over the years the journal is indexed with Emerging Sources Citation Index, Web of Science and Index Copernicus. The past and current issue content is available in<a href=""> </a></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Editorial policy</strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">JPHI Publication Ethics and Publication Malpractice Statement are based, in large part, on the guidelines and standards developed by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). Manuscripts being submitted to JPHI will be preferred in IMRAD style and its mandatory to provide contributors details and author have to declare the conflict of interest. The clinical and pre-clinical experiment should be prepared accordance to “CONSORT” and “ARIVE” guidelines respectively. The manuscripts which are describing clinical findings have to provide “CONSORT” flow chart.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The manuscript published by JPHI is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution: Noncommercial- Share Alike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.&nbsp;<strong>Read more. . .</strong></p> 2019-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect Royal Jelly against Low Protein Diet Induced Hepatic Damage in Male Rats 2019-07-29T12:03:12+00:00 Roshankhah Shiva Arash Ziapoor Cyrus Jalili Mohammad Reza Salahshoor <p><strong>Background:</strong> Proteins play the most important role in the structure and function of liver. Royal Jelly (RJ) as a honey bee secretion has antioxidant activities. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of RJ against hepatic damage in rats induced by Low Protein Diet (LPD). <strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Forty‑eight male rats were randomly assigned into 6 groups: sham and LPD (%8 protein) groups; RJ groups (200 mg/kg RJ for 5 months and 200 mg/kg RJ for 10 months, orally) and LPD + RJ groups (200 mg/kg RJ orally + LPD for 5 months and 200 mg/kg RJ orally and LPD for 10 months). Griess technique was hired for determination of serum Nitric Oxide (NO) level. Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) concentrations were determined for liver functional disturbances value. In addition, Thiobarbituric acid reactive species, antioxidant capacity, the diameter of hepatocytes and the Central Hepatic Vein (CHV) were investigated. <strong>Results:</strong> LPD significantly increased the liver Malondialdehyde (MDA) and NO levels, the mean diameter of CHV and hepatocyte, hepatic enzymes and decreased tissue Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) level compared to the sham group (<em>P</em>&lt; 0.01). The RJ and RJ + LPD in all treatments significantly reduced the mean diameter of hepatocyte and CHV, hepatic enzymes, liver MDA and NO levels and increased tissue FRAP level compared to the LPD group (<em>P</em>&lt; 0.01). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> RJ administration recovers the hepatic injury due to oxidative stress by LPD in rats.</p> 2019-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Single Low Dose Bisphosphonate Treatment Enhances Osteogenesis in hMSCs By Exerting Epigenetic Changes 2019-07-29T12:03:12+00:00 Nasser Alqhtani Brett PM Dhillon VS Shahid M Fawaz Alqahtani <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background:</strong> Bisphosphonates are analogues of pyrophosphate used to treat bone diseases, like osteoporosis and malignant bone diseases characterized by excessive bone resorption. It has been shown that bisphosphonates hinder bone resorption by interfering with osteoclast activity. <strong>Objectives:</strong> The present study is planed to investigated the extended effect of a single low dose of bisphosphonate on proliferative, osteogenic behaviour and if treatment with bisphosphonate leads to epigenetic changes in the human mesenchymal stem cells. <strong>Methods:</strong> We investigated the effects of a single low dose of two BPs [Alendronate (ALE) and Pamidronate (PAM)] on human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) behaviour and phenotype. hMSCs were plated at a density of 5 × 10<sup>5</sup> cells. After 24 hr the medium was changed with growth media containing bisphosphonate at both 100nM and 10nM and were incubated for 24 more h. Cells were then washed, trypsinized and sub-cultured another time with no added exposure to drug. The cell cultures were assayed for proliferation and osteogenic differentiation as well as for changes in DNA methylation. <strong>Results:</strong> Treating cells with a single low dose of either ALE or PAM (100nM and 10nM) brings about a permanent change in the proliferative and osteogenic behaviour of hMSCs even after passaging the cells. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The augmentation of osteogenesis points to the usage of low dose bisphosphonates as an adjunct to implant placement.</p> 2019-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparative Cost Efficiency of the Originator Drug of Infliximab and its Biosimilar for the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis in the MENA Region 2019-07-29T12:03:13+00:00 Ammar Almaaytah Feras Darwich Elhajji <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Objectives:</strong> To study and assess the comparative cost efficiency of Infliximab’s originator (Remicade<sup>®</sup>) and its biosimilar (Remsima<sup>®</sup>) in the treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) across seven Middle Eastern and Northern African countries including Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Morocco, UAE, Tunisia, Algeria and Iraq. <strong>Methods:</strong> Direct costs incurred by one patient for the treatment of moderate to severe RA according to clinical practice were calculated with a treatment regimen consisting of the recommended initial dose of infliximab which is 3 mg/kg every 8 weeks after taking initial loading doses at weeks 0, 2 and 6. The budget impact analysis also depended on two different scenarios. The first scenario disallows the interchangeability between Remicade<sup>®</sup> and Remsima<sup>®</sup> during the treatment duration, while the second scenario assumes interchangeability after 6 months of treatment from the infliximab’s originator to its biosimilar. <strong>Results:</strong> The cumulative cost for treatment with the originator infliximab (Remicade<sup>®</sup>) and its biosimilar Remsima<sup>®</sup> for the three-year period was 27054.00 $ and 21384.00 $, respectively and according to the first treatment scenario. For the second scenario which assumes interchangeability, the total 3 year cost for both Remicade<sup>®</sup> and Remsima<sup>®</sup> was 27054.00 $ and 22335.30 $, respectively. The overall cost savings over three years ranged between 17.4–21% for the two simulated scenarios. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our study displayed that employing Infliximab’s biosimilar (Remsima<sup>®</sup>) for the treatment of RA makes a significant decrease in the overall cost of treatment incurred by the patient (or the payer). Our results clearly highlight that employing Infliximab’s biosimilar, Remsima<sup>®</sup>, for the treatment of RA in the MENA regions would provide significant savings both for the patient or the institutional health care organizations responsible for covering the cost of therapy.</p> 2019-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Knowledge and Practice about Use of Medication among Breast Feeding Women in Saudi Arabia: A Prospective Cohort Study 2019-07-29T12:03:13+00:00 Sana Al Mahmoud Mohammad Daud Ali Ayaz Ahmad Alanood Al Maghrabi Manal Al Harthi Nada Al Fattani <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background:</strong> Amount of drug in milk depend upon the concentration of drug in the mother’s serum. Medications with more half-life time (T<sub>1/2</sub>) are likely to retain higher levels in breast milk. Also number of times of feeding and amount of milk taken by the infant are significant considerations. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and practice about drug use while breastfeeding. <strong>Methods:</strong> A prospective cohort study was conducted and sample size was determined using Krejcie and Morgan’s sample size calculator. A survey was carried in eastern province, Saudi Arabia community by approaching a conveniently selected sample of 545 participants. <strong>Results:</strong> The maximum percentage of participants were housewives (43.11%) while the least participants were from health care professional (6.97%, <em>p</em>&lt; 0.05). Among all the participants, maximum (90.64%) were from urban residents Approx. 50 % (<em>p</em>&lt; 0.05) of participants are not getting proper information from doctors about the prescribed drugs. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Awareness should be raised about the possible side effects of medication use during breastfeeding.</p> 2019-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Factors Influencing Plasma Concentrations of Phenytoin, Phenobarbitone, Carbamazepine and Sodium Valproate in Epileptic Patients Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital 2019-07-29T12:03:13+00:00 Sudharshan Jagennath Gerard Marshal Raj Jayanthi Mathaiyan <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Objective:</strong> The traditional anti-epileptic drugs like phenytoin, sodium valproate and carbamazepine continue to be used widely in the low to middle income countries due to their time tested efficacy and low costs. The factors which affect the AED concentrations in non-toxicity indications has not been reported so far. Hence, we studied the factors that could influence the plasma concentrations of these AEDs. <strong>Methods:</strong> This is a retrospective record based study and a short term prosepective study. Requisition forms of epileptic patients referred for TDM 2012-2014 were compared with the AED concentrations reported. Epileptic patients who were referred during May-June 2015 for TDM were evaluated for their seizure history and anthropometic measurements for calculation of extracellular volume (V<sub>ECW</sub>) and compared with the AED concentrations. <strong>Results:</strong> Out of the 170 requisitions for TDM, 68.2% were monotherapy and 31.8% received two or more antiepileptic drugs. In 44% of patients, the plasma concentrations of the AED correlated with clinical response. In our study the plasma level of carbamazepine was found to be reduced by phenytoin, sodium valproate concentration was reduced by carbamazepine and phenytoin levels were reduced by sodium valproate. In male, phenytoin levels were significantly lower than in female, Phenytoin decreased carbamazepine levels significantly in female. Carbamazepine significantly decreased sodium valproate concentrations in females. Carbamazepine dose adjusted for weight and V<sub>ECW</sub> was found to show a trend of correlation to the blood levels, <strong>Conclusion:</strong> TDM for AEDs is an indispensable investigation that guides the clinicians to tailor dose of drugs in individual patients. Factors such as age, gender, concomitant drugs in general and V<sub>ECW</sub> in patients on carbamazepine needs to be considered while interpreting AED plasma concentrations for monitoring therapy.</p> 2019-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##