Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by using Stem, Leaves and Fruits Extracts of Umber (Ficus racemosa)
Objectives: In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using healthy plant parts like fruits, stem and leaves of Ficus racemosa. Methods: The collected plant samples were processed by cleaning, drying and grinding. Bioactive compounds were extracted by using Soxhlet extraction method. The 10mg of plant extract was added to 1mM AgNO3 solution and incubated at 80°C for 3min. The UV-Vis spectroscopy was used for characterization of produced AgNPs. The synthesis process was optimized for pH (3 to 9), plant extracts conc. (0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8mg/2ml), incubation temp. (50°C, 60°C upto 100°C) and silver salt conc. (0.125, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0 and 2mM). Finally the antimicrobial and seed germination ability of synthesized AgNPs was determined. Results: The λmax values were found to be 464.50nm, 422nm and 489nm for fruits, stem and leaves respectively. FTIR spectra of control and test were determined which showed the different functional groups in the synthesized AgNPs. The optimum pH (9, 8 and 8), plant extracts conc. (8, 4 and 8mg), incubation temp. (80°C, 90°C and 100°C) and silver salt conc. (2mM, 1.5mM and 2mM) for fruit, stem and leaves AgNPs were determined. The selective NPs showed notable antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria like S. equorum and B. subtilis and significant effect on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed germination. Conclusion: The green synthesis process was found to be time saving and effective approach for the synthesis of the AgNPs from different plant parts. Produced NPs have potential applications in therapeutics and agriculture.