Expression of MUC4 in Oral Dysplastic Epithelium
Background: Though various biological markers are available for improving the diagnostic accuracy early detection of disease progression remains a challenging task mainly due to lack of adequate early prognostic marker. Aim and Objectives: To evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of MUC4 in oral epithelial dysplasia and to compare the immuno histochemical expression of MUC4 in Oral Epithelia Dysplasia (OED) and its expression in the normal tissue specimens. Materials and Methods: The present retrospective study was undertaken to compare and evaluate the expression of MUC4 in oral epithelial dysplasia and normal. The study comprised of 45 cases of oral epithelial dysplasia and 10 controls. Control specimens were obtained from healthy oral mucosa of individuals undergoing oral surgery for disimpaction of third molars and orthodontic extractions. Serial sections of 3-4 microns thickness were made from the tissue blocks and were stained using immunohistochemical marker MUC4, using an immunoperoxidase technique (ABC method). The semi quantitative analysis of the stained sections was done by light microscopy according to the Immunoreactive Score (IRS) by Remmele and Stegner which evaluated percentage of positive cells and the staining intensity. Results: Less than 10% of positive cells were seen in 9 cases of mild dysplasia out of 15 cases and 3 cases showed 10 to 50% of positive cells. Whereas less than 10% of positive cells were seen in 6 cases of moderate dysplasia out of 15 cases and other 9 cases showed 16% and 42% of positive cells respectively. However, in severe dysplasia positive cells percentage increased to 10 to 50% in 10 cases and other cases showed less than 10% respectively. Conclusion: In the OED group a gradual increase in the staining pattern was observed from mild to moderate to severe dysplasia. Severe dysplasia cases exhibited the staining of entire thickness of epithelium. Thus, it may be concluded that MUC4 plays a very important role and can be reckoned as a handy tool or marker for diagnosis of OED.