Intensive Monitoring of Adverse Drug Reactions to Antipsychotic Medications in the Inpatient Psychiatry Department of a Secondary Care Hospital of UAE
Background: Antipsychotics are a class of medications used primarily for the treatment of psychotic disorders. However, these medications are associated with potential adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Aim: To monitor the incidence and nature of ADRs in the psychiatric inpatient department of a secondary care hospital of Ras Al Khaimah, UAE. Materials and Methods: This was an observational, prospective, noninterventional study, conducted in the psychiatric inpatient setting of a secondary care hospital. Psychiatric inpatients of all age groups and both the gender, diagnosed with any psychotic disorder, and hospitalized in the psychiatry ward and managed with at least one antipsychotic medication were included in the study. The causality, severity, and preventability of ADRs were assessed using different assessment scales. Results: Out of 170 patients, 38 patients reported at least one ADR with an incidence rate of 22.3%. The most common ADRs were weight gain 15 (29.4%) due to olanzapine, followed by pseudo‑parkinsonism 11 (21.6%) due to parenteral haloperidol. Schizophrenia (18, 35.3%), followed by bipolar I disorder (10, 19.6%) was the most common condition associated with ADRs. Female gender and duration of hospital stay were found to be significant (P < 0.05) predictors of occurrence of ADRs. Conclusion: A high incidence of ADRs was observed in the inpatients of psychiatry department, especially of mild nature and probably preventable types. The study highlights the importance of intensive monitoring by pharmacists to identify high ADR risk psychiatric inpatients. To reduce the ADR risk, specific and frequent monitoring for antipsychotics is recommended such as weight and extrapyramidal symptoms.